M. Lankes, M. Rajtár, O. Denisov, B. Maurer - Socialeyes: social gaze in collaborative 3D games - Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, Malmö, Sweden, 2018
This paper examines the effects of social gaze regarding social presence in an on-line collaborative game setting. We propose a novel approach of integrating gaze-based interactions in social settings by augmenting social gaze-based behaviors (e.g., joint attention, mutual gaze, etc.) through interaction mechanics and visualizations. In detail, we want to find out if players experience a higher degree of social presence (co-presence, psycho-behavioral interactions) in our social gaze-supported approach in comparison to settings that either only include basic (i.e., gaze is integrated without taking any social behavior into account) or no gaze features. To get answers, we conducted an experiment consisting of a collaborative 3D game prototype for two players with three different conditions (gaze, social gaze, no gaze). Furthermore, players were confronted with three construction challenges that had to be solved cooperatively. Our study findings highlight the positive influence of social gaze on the perceived social presence. The inclusion of social gaze features received better ratings on both social presence sub-scales. With the gathered results we want to provide insights for game designers and researchers regarding the inclusion of social gaze-based interaction in remote and cooperative gaming settings.