T. Wallner, M. Menrad - Extending the Innovation Ecosystem Framework - Proceedings of the XXII ISPIM Conference, 12.-15. Juni, Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 2011, pp. 9
Most existing innovation system models include culture as a factor; but they do not see it as a variable factor or do not provide the means to influence it. The open system approach is suggested by systems theory as an organizational paradigm to meet the current competitive challenges. It can be applied on the individual level, the organizational level and on the level of the societal system.
As innovativeness is a characteristic of culture, culture is a critical constituent of an innovation ecosystem. Innovativeness and culture are emerging qualities of social systems. They cannot be created, but they can be transformed by purposeful action. The principles of the open systems paradigm coincide with values attributed to an innovative culture and can serve as a guiding framework.